The 25-year-old was Player of the Year for Tasman Makos as they won the ITM Cup Championship for the first time last October and made six appearances for the Blues in Super Rugby last season.
MacDonald is a solid and reliable scrummager with a reputation as a superb lineout thrower and prior to his spell with the Blues, he played 22 games for Crusaders.
Hailing from Blenheim in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand, MacDonald made his New Zealand Maori debut on the team's European Tour in 2012, playing in all three matches.
The former Marlborough Boys College skipper was also part of the New Zealand Under-20s' inaugural 2008 IRB Junior World Championship success in Wales.
He made his Super Rugby debut for the Crusaders in 2010 and has gone on to make 28 Super Rugby appearances along with 56 games for Tasman Makos.
Earlier this week, head coach Rob Penney confirmed that Munster would be looking for an additional hooker with Mike Sherry on the long-term injury list, after rupturing his cruciate ligament in early December, and development hooker Niall Scannell most recently ruled out after hyper-extending his elbow.
Damien Varley has also been sidelined for the past number of weeks as he follows the IRB return-to-play protocols for delayed concussion after the Edinburgh game last month.
Commenting on the short-term signing, Penney said: "We've addressed the ongoing hooker injuries and looked at the possibility of bringing in someone so it's great that we can call on Quentin's services for the immediate future.
"I know him very well having worked with him previously, and I believe he will be a great addition to the squad. We look forward to welcoming Quentin to the province."