Les Kiss will take-up the position of interim director of rugby to allow time for a review of the coaching structures at Ulster Rugby to take place.
Kiss will continue as Ireland assistant coach and will combine his duties with the international side with his new role at Ulster.
Ulster Rugby Chief Executive Shane Logan said: "I would like to pay tribute to the contribution that Mark Anscombe made over the past two seasons and to thank him for his hard work and dedication. Everyone at Ulster Rugby wishes him well for the future.
"Les Kiss will have an expanded remit for the province's director of rugby and will lead the coaching staff, assisted by Jonny Bell and Neil Doak, and will manage first team selection. His appointment allows us time to recruit for long-term success."
Les Kiss will start work at Ulster Rugby on July 19.